pure people who meditated on a carpet. Amity House. Currently active Sufi academics and publishers include Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee, Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Abdullah Nooruddeen Durkee, Abdal Hakim Murad, Syed Waheed Ashraf and the Franco-Moroccan Faouzi Skali.  Ibn Barrajan and Ibn al-‘Arif were both tried for heresy because their views conflicted with those of the Almoravids in power; however, Ibn Barrajan appears to have been more active in using Sufism as a means of challenging Quranic scholars and jurists. Origin of Sufism The origin of Sufism is difficult to trace, a riddle unsolved. However Islamic scholars predating the Islamic Golden Age were referred to as Sufis, like Hasan of Basra. Orientalists proposed a variety of origin theories regarding Sufism, such as that it originated as an Aryan response to Semitic influence, Buddhism, Neo-Platonism, and Christian ascetism or Gnosticism. Seyyedeh Dr. Nahid Angha. Neither body or soul.I belong to the beloved, have seen the twoworlds as one and that one call to and know,first, last, outer, inner, only thatbreath breathing human being. Sufism as a brother/sisterhood may be traced back as far as the period of Daniel. From the original root many derivations can be traced; among them the Greek word Sophia is one of the most interesting. The Khalwati order was founded by Umar al-Khalwati, an Azerbaijani Sufi known for undertaking long solitary retreats in the wilderness of Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran. The first stage of Sufism appeared in pious circles as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad period (661–749). Of them the Chishti order is the most visible. It came to India before the establishment of the Sultanate of Delhi but after the foundation of the Turkish rule, a large Group of Sufis form different Islamic countries migrated to India and established them-selves in many parts of Hindustan. They even dislike being given any inclusive name which might force them into doctrinal conformity. In wisdom is rooted religion, which connotes law and inspiration. As he noted: "Every age of the world has seen awakened souls, and as it is impossible to limit wisdom to any one period or place, so it is impossible to date the origin of Sufism.". It also explains why Sufis will accept some alchemists to have been Sufis, as well as understanding the underlying developmental factors in Rumi's evolutionary philosophy, or Hallaj's 'Christianity'; why, indeed, Jesus is said to stand, in a sense, at the head of the Sufis. Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti, a disciple of Khwaja Usman Harooni, the propounder of this order, introduced it in India. Seyyedeh Dr. Nahid Angha. If they call Islam the "shell" of Sufism, this is because they believe Sufism to be the secret teaching within all religions. Some scholars say Sufism is derived from the word Ahl al-Suffa , or the People of the Bench, which refers to the platform on which the Holy Prophet Muhammad and the believers used to sit while worshipping God. From their practice of constantly meditating on the words in the Qurʾān (the Islamic holy book) about Doomsday, the ascetics became known as “those who always A minority is apt to fence itself off from the crowd. , Although Sufism would no longer directly be a part of Andalusi life after the Catholic Monarchs expelled Muslims from Spain, in the Spanish Christian mystics of the sixteenth century, such as San Juan de la Cruz and Teresa of Avila, many have seen Sufism's lasting influence in Spain. Sufism arose from within Islam in the … Sufism has gained an Oriental flavor from having been so long protected by Islam, but the natural Sufi may be as common in the West as in the East, and may come dressed as a general, a peasant, a merchant, a lawyer, a schoolmaster, a housewife, anything.  He belonged to what Spanish scholar of Islam, Miguel Asin Palacios, termed the "School of Almeria," so named for its geographical location. Since the Sufis meditated upon God on a carpet, Sufism took its birth i.e.  His works in Andalusia focused mainly on the perfect human individual, monastic metaphysics, and mystical path to spiritual and intellectual perfection. Not any religionor cultural system. He is one of the most important Sufis of Spain, although he--like many other Andalusi Sufis--would eventually leave the peninsula and travel throughout North Africa and the East. Khwaja Razi-ud-Din Muhammad Baqi Billah whose tomb is in Delhi, introduced the Naqshbandi order in India. 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